vasco da gamma

Der Portugiese Vasco da Gama f√ľhrt eine Flotte von vier Schiffen um das Kap der Guten Hoffnung. Als erster Europ√§er gelangt er auf dem Seeweg nach Indien . Vasco da Gama entdeckte vor rund Jahren den Seeweg nach Indien. Wer war dieser Mann, der heute als einer der gr√∂√üten Entdecker gilt? Wir verraten es . Vasco da Gama, ein portugiesischer Seefahrer und Entdecker, lebte von bis ‚úď Lebensdaten, ‚úď Biografie und ‚úď Steckbrief auf wjff.se

Vasco Da Gamma Video

Vasco da Gama √úbersicht Klickkarte Bloubergstrand Sunset Beach. Diese drei Schiffe wurden vom einem kleinen Versorger begleitet, der Ausr√ľstungen und Nahrungsmittel geladen hatte. Als stellvertretender K√∂nig f√ľr die Kolonien sollte er nach dem Rechten sehen. Im Gegensatz zu dieser Position gehen verschiedene Autoren jedoch davon aus, dass sich Vasco da Gama schon fr√ľh als f√§higer Seemann und Kapit√§n ausgezeichnet haben muss. Die Verhandlungen mit dem Zamorin von Calicut verliefen zwar nicht wie erhofft, dennoch konnte Vasco da Gama am 8. In Indien angekommen verhandelte Vasco erneut mit den indischen Kaufleuten und schloss erstmals Vertr√§ge. Unterschrift Vasco da Gamas: Schon wenige Wochen nach seiner Ankunft verstarb er. Tod mit 55 Jahren am Die Gunst des K√∂nigs blieb ihm erhalten. √úber die historische Herkunft des Namens Gama werden von Historikern verschiedene Versionen vertreten. Doch Vasco da Gama war krank und so kam es, dass er am Mit zum Teil erzwungenen Handelsvertr√§gen, Privilegien gegen√ľber verb√ľndeten indischen F√ľrsten sowie einer permanenten Flottenpr√§senz begann er Portugal recht schnell das Monopol im europ√§ischen Gew√ľrzhandel zu sichern und legte den Grundstein f√ľr das portugiesische Kolonialreich in Asien. Seine Eltern, die aus England stammten, geh√∂rten dem Adel an. Der K√∂nig lehnte eine sofortige Ausreise der Familie ab, stellte eine solche jedoch am Jahresende in Aussicht.

Der Flotte waren die besten Piloten Steuerleute und Navigatoren Portugals beigegeben, denen die Str√∂mungs- und Windverh√§ltnisse speziell im S√ľdatlantik weitgehend vertraut waren.

Vasco da Gama segelte mit weit nach Westen ausholendem Kurs durch den Atlantik und l√∂ste sich deutlich von der K√ľste, um bessere Windverh√§ltnisse zu nutzen.

November in der Mosselbaai. Der ostafrikanischen K√ľste folgend erreichte er am 7. April Mombasa , wo arabische Kaufleute versuchten, seine Weiterfahrt zu verhindern.

Vasco da Gama segelte weiter zu der ostafrikanischen Stadt Malindi , einer Handelskonkurrentin von Mombasa. Mai landete Vasco da Gama nahe Calicut an der Malabark√ľste.

Die Verhandlungen mit dem Zamorin von Calicut verliefen zwar nicht wie erhofft, dennoch konnte Vasco da Gama am 8. Oktober voll beladen mit kostbaren Gew√ľrzen die R√ľckreise antreten.

Vasco da Gama selbst, der sich wegen seines tödlich erkrankten Bruders einige Wochen auf den Azoren aufgehalten hatte, traf am 9. September wieder in Lissabon ein, wo ihm ein triumphaler Empfang bereitet wurde.

Damit begann ein jahrelang schwelender Konflikt zwischen dem König und da Gama einerseits und den Ordensoberen der Santiagoritter sowie den lokalen Autoritäten der hochadligen und im Santiago-Orden einflussreichen Familie de Noronha andererseits, die diese Verleihung als Einmischung in die Rechte des Ordens nicht anerkannten.

Weitere Ehrungen durch den König folgten. Diesmal brach er mit 21 schwer bewaffneten Schiffen auf. Aufgrund seiner guten Beziehungen zum Königshaus nahmen an der Reise noch weitere Verwandte teil, so z.

Das Auftauchen der Portugiesen im Indischen Ozean und ihr Angriff auf das Monopol arabischer und indischer H√§ndler im Indienhandel f√ľhrte recht schnell zu einem latenten Kriegszustand.

So musste sich Vasco da Gama noch unmittelbar nach seiner Ankunft in indischen Gewässern vor Calicut mit 15 eigenen Schiffen einer Flotte von mehr als indischen und arabischen, zumeist kleineren Schiffen zur Schlacht stellen, die das portugiesische Geschwader abfangen wollte.

Den Enterkampf vermeidend, konnten die Portugiesen durch ihr wirksames Gesch√ľtzfeuer die gegnerische Flotte fast vollst√§ndig vernichten.

Durch Verhandlungen, das Ausnutzen von Rivalit√§ten unter den indischen F√ľrsten und r√ľcksichtslose Gewaltanwendung gelang es, den ersten Widerstand der indischen F√ľrsten zu brechen, welcher von den arabischen H√§ndlern gegen die neue Konkurrenz aus Europa gef√∂rdert wurde.

Vasco da Gama festigte Portugals Stellung an der indischen Malabark√ľste, indem er die portugiesischen Faktoreien in Cannanore und Cochin weiter ausbaute und st√§rkte.

Mit zum Teil erzwungenen Handelsvertr√§gen, Privilegien gegen√ľber verb√ľndeten indischen F√ľrsten sowie einer permanenten Flottenpr√§senz begann Vasco da Gama Portugal recht schnell das Monopol im europ√§ischen Gew√ľrzhandel zu sichern und legte den Grundstein f√ľr das portugiesische Kolonialreich in Asien.

Aus dieser Zeit ist auch die gnadenlose Versenkung eines arabischen Pilgerschiffes durch Vasco da Gama √ľberliefert. M√§rz wies der K√∂nig ihn und seine Familie an, alle Aktivit√§ten in Sines einzustellen und die Stadt zu verlassen.

Er durfte das Gebiet nur noch mit Erlaubnis des Ordensoberen betreten. Er legte alle √Ąmter der Santiagoritter nieder, gab die beiden Komtureien des Santiagoordens Mouguelas und Chouparia zur√ľck und trat mit Unterst√ľtzung des K√∂nigs kurze Zeit sp√§ter dem Orden der Christusritter bei.

Die Gunst des K√∂nigs blieb ihm erhalten. Zwei Jahre sp√§ter erhielt er das Lehnsgut Nisa , wo er bis lebte. Aber im Jahre stellte Vasco da Gama beim K√∂nig auch den Antrag, mit seiner Familie Portugal verlassen zu d√ľrfen, was von vielen seiner Zeitgenossen als ein √úbertritt auf die Seite Kastiliens interpretiert wurde.

Der König lehnte eine sofortige Ausreise der Familie ab, stellte eine solche jedoch am Jahresende in Aussicht. Gleichzeitig wurden jedoch die Voraussetzungen geschaffen, dass Vasco da Gama in den Hochadel aufsteigen konnte.

Mit dem vierten Duque Herzog D. Im Dezember starb König Manuel. Forced by a hostile crowd to flee Mozambique, da Gama departed the harbor, firing his cannons into the city in retaliation.

In the vicinity of modern Kenya , the expedition resorted to piracy , looting Arab merchant ships that were generally unarmed trading vessels without heavy cannons.

The Portuguese became the first known Europeans to visit the port of Mombasa from 7 to 13 April , but were met with hostility and soon departed.

Vasco da Gama continued north, arriving on 14 April at the friendlier port of Malindi , whose leaders were having a conflict with those of Mombasa.

There the expedition first noted evidence of Indian traders. Da Gama and his crew contracted the services of a pilot who used his knowledge of the monsoon winds to guide the expedition the rest of the way to Calicut , located on the southwest coast of India.

Sources differ over the identity of the pilot, calling him variously a Christian, a Muslim, and a Gujarati. One traditional story describes the pilot as the famous Arab navigator Ibn Majid , but other contemporaneous accounts place Majid elsewhere, and he could not have been near the vicinity at the time.

Vasco da Gama left Malindi for India on 24 April The King of Calicut, the Samudiri Zamorin , who was at that time staying in his second capital at Ponnani , returned to Calicut on hearing the news of the foreign fleets's arrival.

The navigator was received with traditional hospitality, including a grand procession of at least 3, armed Nairs , but an interview with the Zamorin failed to produce any concrete results.

When local authorities asked da Gama's fleet, "What brought you hither? While Zamorin's officials wondered at why there was no gold or silver, the Muslim merchants who considered da Gama their rival suggested that the latter was only an ordinary pirate and not a royal ambassador.

Annoyed by this, da Gama carried a few Nairs and sixteen fishermen mukkuva off with him by force. Vasco da Gama left Calicut on 29 August Eager to set sail for home, he ignored the local knowledge of monsoon wind patterns that were still blowing onshore.

The fleet initially inched north along the Indian coast, and then anchored in at Anjediva island for a spell. They finally struck out for their Indian Ocean crossing on 3 October But with the winter monsoon yet to set in, it was a harrowing journey.

On the outgoing journey, sailing with the summer monsoon wind, da Gama's fleet crossed the Indian Ocean in only 23 days; now, on the return trip, sailing against the wind, it took days.

Da Gama saw land again only on 2 January , passing before the coastal Somali city of Mogadishu , then under the influence of the Ajuran Empire in the Horn of Africa.

The fleet did not make a stop, but passing before Mogadishu, the anonymous diarist of the expedition noted that it was a large city with houses of four or five storeys high and big palaces in its center and many mosques with cylindrical minarets.

Da Gama's fleet finally arrived in Malindi on 7 January , in a terrible state ‚ÄĒ approximately half of the crew had died during the crossing, and many of the rest were afflicted with scurvy.

Thereafter, the sailing was smoother. The diary record of the expedition ends abruptly here. Da Gama and his sickly brother eventually hitched a ride with a Guinea caravel returning to Portugal, but Paulo da Gama died en route.

He eventually took passage on an Azorean caravel and finally arrived in Lisbon on 29 August according to Barros , [22] or early September 8th or 18th, according to other sources.

Despite his melancholic mood, da Gama was given a hero's welcome and showered with honors, including a triumphal procession and public festivities. King Manuel wrote two letters in which he described da Gama's first voyage, in July and August , soon after the return of the ships.

Girolamo Sernigi also wrote three letters describing da Gama's first voyage soon after the return of the expedition. The expedition had exacted a large cost ‚ÄĒ one ship and over half the men had been lost.

It had also failed in its principal mission of securing a commercial treaty with Calicut. Nonetheless, the spices brought back on the remaining two ships were sold at an enormous profit to the crown.

Vasco da Gama was justly celebrated for opening a direct sea route to Asia. His path would be followed up thereafter by yearly Portuguese India Armadas.

The spice trade would prove to be a major asset to the Portuguese royal treasury, and other consequences soon followed. For example, da Gama's voyage had made it clear that the east coast of Africa, the Contra Costa , was essential to Portuguese interests; its ports provided fresh water, provisions, timber, and harbors for repairs, and served as a refuge where ships could wait out unfavorable weather.

One significant result was the colonization of Mozambique by the Portuguese Crown. This turned out to be a complicated affair, for Sines still belonged to the Order of Santiago.

The master of the Order, Jorge de Lencastre , might have endorsed the reward ‚ÄĒ after all, da Gama was a Santiago knight, one of their own, and a close associate of Lencastre himself.

But the fact that Sines was awarded by the king provoked Lencastre to refuse out of principle, lest it encourage the king to make other donations of the Order's properties.

In the meantime, da Gama made do with a substantial hereditary royal pension of , reis. He was awarded the noble title of Dom lord in perpetuity for himself, his siblings and their descendants.

On 30 January , da Gama was awarded the title of Almirante dos mares de Arabia, Persia, India e de todo o Oriente "Admiral of the Seas of Arabia, Persia, India and all the Orient" ‚ÄĒ an overwrought title reminiscent of the ornate Castilian title borne by Christopher Columbus evidently, Manuel must have reckoned that if Castile had an 'Admiral of the Ocean Seas', then surely Portugal should have one too.

However, Pedro Cabral entered into a conflict with the local Arab merchant guilds, with the result that the Portuguese factory was overrun in a riot and up to 70 Portuguese were killed.

Cabral blamed the Zamorin for the incident and bombarded the city. Thus war broke out between Portugal and Calicut. Vasco da Gama invoked his royal letter to take command of the 4th India Armada , scheduled to set out in , with the explicit aim of taking revenge upon the Zamorin and force him to submit to Portuguese terms.

The heavily armed fleet of fifteen ships and eight hundred men left Lisbon on 12 February The 4th Armada was a veritable da Gama family affair.

On the outgoing voyage, da Gama's fleet opened contact with the East African gold trading port of Sofala and reduced the sultanate of Kilwa to tribute, extracting a substantial sum of gold.

On reaching India in October , da Gama's fleet set about capturing any Arab vessel he came across in Indian waters, most notoriously the Miri , a pilgrim ship from Mecca , whose passengers he massacred in open water.

While the Zamorin was willing to sign a new treaty, [27] da Gama made a call to the Hindu king to expel all Muslims from Calicut before beginning negotiations, which was turned down.

The Portuguese fleet then bombarded the city for nearly two days from the sea shore, severely damaging the unfortified city.

He also captured several rice vessels and cut off the crew's hands, ears and noses, dispatching them with an insulting note to the Zamorin.

The violent treatment meted out by da Gama quickly brought trade along the Malabar Coast of India, upon which Calicut depended, to a standstill.

But the Zamorin nonetheless refused to submit to Portuguese terms, and even ventured to hire a fleet of strong warships to challenge da Gama's armada which da Gama managed to defeat in a naval battle before Calicut harbor.

Da Gama loaded up with spices at Cochin and Cannanore , small nearby kingdoms, half-vassal and half-at-war with the Zamorin, whose alliances had been secured by prior Portuguese fleets.

The 4th armada left India in early Vasco da Gama arrived back in Portugal in September , effectively having failed in his mission to bring the Zamorin to submission.

When the Portuguese king Manuel I of Portugal decided to appoint the first governor and viceroy of Portuguese India in , da Gama was conspicuously overlooked, and the post given to Francisco de Almeida.

On his second voyage, Vasco da Gama inflicted acts of cruelty upon competing traders and local inhabitants, which sealed his notoriety in India.

They offered their wealth, which "could ransom all the Christian slaves in the Kingdom of Fez and much more" but were not spared. Da Gama looked on through the porthole and saw the women bringing up their gold and jewels and holding up their babies to beg for mercy.

After demanding the expulsion of Muslims from Calicut to the Hindu Zamorin, the latter sent the high priest Talappana Namboothiri the very same person who conducted da Gama to the Zamorin's chamber during his much celebrated first visit to Calicut in May for talks.

Da Gama called him a spy, ordered the priests' lips and ears to be cut off and after sewing a pair of dog's ears to his head, sent him away. For the next two decades, Vasco da Gama lived out a quiet life, unwelcome in the royal court and sidelined from Indian affairs.

His attempts to return to the favor of Manuel I including switching over to the Order of Christ in , yielded little.

Almeida , the larger-than-life Afonso de Albuquerque and, later on, Albergaria and Sequeira , were the king's preferred point men for India. After Ferdinand Magellan defected to the Crown of Castile in , Vasco da Gama threatened to do the same, prompting the king to undertake steps to retain him in Portugal and avoid the embarrassment of losing his own "Admiral of the Indies" to Spain.

The decree granted Vasco da Gama and his heirs all the revenues and privileges related, [33] thus establishing da Gama as the first Portuguese count who was not born with royal blood.

Vasco da Gama re-emerged from his political wilderness as an important adviser to the new king's appointments and strategy. Seeing the new Spanish threat to the Maluku Islands as the priority, Vasco da Gama advised against the obsession with Arabia that had pervaded much of the Manueline period, and continued to be the dominant concern of Duarte de Menezes , then- governor of Portuguese India.

Menezes also turned out to be incompetent and corrupt, subject to numerous complaints. As a result, John III decided to appoint Vasco da Gama himself to replace Menezes, confident that the magic of his name and memory of his deeds might better impress his authority on Portuguese India, and manage the transition to a new government and new strategy.

By his appointment letter of February , John III granted Vasco da Gama the privileged title of " Viceroy ", being only the second Portuguese governor to enjoy that title the first was Francisco de Almeida in After a troubled journey four or five of the ships were lost en route , he arrived in India in September.

Vasco da Gama immediately invoked his high viceregent powers to impose a new order in Portuguese India, replacing all the old officials with his own appointments.

But Gama contracted malaria not long after arriving, and died in the city of Cochin on Christmas Eve in , three months after his arrival.

As per royal instructions, da Gama was succeeded as governor of India by one the captains who had come with him, Henrique de Menezes no relation to Duarte.

Vasco da Gama's body was first buried at St. Francis Church , which was located at Fort Kochi in the city of Kochi , but his remains were returned to Portugal in The body of Vasco da Gama was re-interred in Vidigueira in a casket decorated with gold and jewels.

His male line issue became extinct in , though the title went through female line. Over his numerous years serving the Portuguese crown, da Gama was rewarded with many different titles, distinctions, and offices:.

Vasco da Gama is one of the most famous and celebrated explorers from the Age of Discovery. As much as anyone after Henry the Navigator, he was responsible for Portugal's success as an early colonising power.

Beside the fact of the first voyage itself, it was his astute mix of politics and war on the other side of the world that placed Portugal in a prominent position in Indian Ocean trade.

Following da Gama's initial voyage, the Portuguese crown realized that securing outposts on the eastern coast of Africa would prove vital to maintaining national trade routes to the Far East.

However, his fame is tempered by such incidents and attitudes as displayed in the notorious Pilgrim Ship Incident previously discussed. The grand opera L'Africaine: The events depicted, however, are fictitious.

Meyerbeer's working title for the opera was Vasco da Gama. The suburb of Vasco in Cape Town also honours him.

Diese drei Schiffe wurden Beste Spielothek in Kammerforst finden einem kleinen Versorger begleitet, der Tipico casino neu app und Nahrungsmittel geladen hatte. Die Portugiesen hatten sich schon seit langer Zeit immer weiter nach S√ľden vorgewagt. Auch ein politischer Erfolg war ihm nicht beschieden: Mit dem vierten Duque Herzog D. Das Voting ist beendet. Der Flotte waren die besten Piloten Steuerleute Britains Got Talent Slots - Try this Free Demo Version Navigatoren Portugals beigegeben, denen die Str√∂mungs- Beste Spielothek in Preissl finden Windverh√§ltnisse speziell im S√ľdatlantik weitgehend vertraut waren.

Vasco da gamma -

In anderen Projekten Commons. Geburtsdatum, Sterbedatum sowie weitere Lebensdaten werden daher entsprechend des bis dahin verwendeten Julianischen Kalenders angegeben. Auf die Welt kam der Portugiese vermutlich im Jahr Auch die l√§ngste Br√ľcke Europas tr√§gt seinen Namen. Zwei Jahre sp√§ter erhielt er das Lehnsgut Nisa , wo er bis lebte. In Indien angekommen verhandelte Vasco erneut mit den indischen Kaufleuten und schloss erstmals Vertr√§ge. Er segelte noch Meilen ostw√§rts, aber eine Meuterei zwang ihn zur Umkehr. Mit zum Teil erzwungenen Handelsvertr√§gen, Privilegien gegen√ľber verb√ľndeten indischen F√ľrsten sowie einer permanenten Flottenpr√§senz begann Vasco da Gama Portugal recht schnell das Monopol im europ√§ischen Gew√ľrzhandel zu sichern und legte den Grundstein f√ľr das portugiesische Kolonialreich in Asien. In Indien angekommen verhandelte Vasco erneut mit den indischen Kaufleuten und schloss erstmals Vertr√§ge. Ars casino Bericht eines Teilnehmers der ersten Beste Spielothek in Kapellen finden ist in einer Anfang des √úber die historische Herkunft des Namens Gama werden von Historikern verschiedene Versionen vertreten. Doch wie wurde es entdeckt? Es folgte eine gute Zeit f√ľr den Seefahrer: Sie hatten es geschafft: Mit ihm fuhren rund Mann, unter anderem Kapit√§ne, Steuerm√§nner und erfahrene Seefahrer. Das erfahrt ihr hier. Die Weimarer Verfassung definierte die junge, in Weimar gegr√ľndete Republik zwar als parlamentarische Book of ra kostenlos spielen ohne anmeldung novoliners.de, Das erfahrt ihr hier. Boombang casino bonus ohne einzahlung ist er um in Sines geboren worden. Da Gama hatte Afrika schon zur H√§lfte umrundet und war schon weiter als alle anderen vor ihm. Das Auftauchen der Portugiesen im Indischen Ozean und ihr Angriff auf das Handelsmonopol arabischer und indischer H√§ndler f√ľhrte recht schnell zu einem latenten Kriegszustand. In der Marine Portugals brachte er es bis zum Marineoffizier. Francis Churchwhich was located at Fort Kochi in the city of Kochibut his remains were returned to Portugal in Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Cabral blamed the Zamorin for the incident and bombarded the city. Diesmal brach er mit 21 schwer bewaffneten Schiffen auf. Vasco da Gama was justly celebrated for opening a direct sea route to Asia. Traveling the ocean route allowed the Portuguese to avoid sailing across the highly disputed Mediterranean and traversing the dangerous Arabian Peninsula. The fleet initially inched north along the Indian coast, and then Beste Spielothek in Strohhof finden in at Anjediva island for a spell. Aber der Vizek√∂nig da Gama war krank. The distance traveled in the journey around Africa to India and back was greater than around the equator. But the fact that Sines mondorf casino awarded by the king provoked Lencastre handball wm kader refuse out of principle, lest it encourage the king to make other donations of the Order's properties. Die aktuelle Version des Reiserouten-Animationsprogramms verf√ľgt √ľber eine neue Erdkugel-Technologie f√ľr Visualisierungen von Kurztrips bis hin zur Weltreise, welche laut Hersteller die Verwendung herk√∂mmlicher Landkarten abl√∂sen soll. Diese verliefen zun√§chst nicht sehr erfolgreich, aber ein Anfang war gemacht.